On May 14, 2013, the National Transportation Safety Board recommended that all 50 states lower the benchmark for determining when a driver is legally drunk from 0.08 to 0.05. The idea is part of an initiative to eliminate drink-driving, which accounts for about one-third of all road deaths.  NHTSA provides statistics on impaired driving, materials for impaired driving campaigns, and case studies on effective practices to stop impaired driving. If, after arrest, it is determined that the person`s blood alcohol level is not equal to or greater than the legal limit of 0.08%, they are likely to be released without charge. However, one can still be charged with driving under the influence of alcohol due to driving symptoms, observed impairment, admissions or field sobriety test performance. And if drug use is suspected, a blood or urine test is likely, or at least testimony from a specially trained official called a Drug Recognition Expert (DRE). If there is sufficient evidence of a drug-induced conduct disorder, those arrested may be charged with driving under the influence of drugs or under the combined influence of alcohol and drugs. For every female driver involved in a fatal accident, there were three drivers. If drivers were alcoholics, that number increased to four male drivers for every female driver. Some states are introducing tougher penalties for impaired driving (DUI) related to crimes. They are also pretty tough on first-time offenders, and it`s not just a “do it better next time” slap on the wrist. Even first-time offenders are severely punished for drunk driving.
In all U.S. jurisdictions, participation in field sobriety testing is voluntary and is not required by implied consent laws.  (Police are not required to inform the suspect that participation in a TSF or other pre-arrest procedure is voluntary. In contrast, formal proof-testing conducted under implied consent requirements is considered mandatory.)  This impaired driver`s licence exists at a time when the national consciousness is focused on impaired driving and a number of states are enacting stricter laws that severely punish impaired drivers. Under Idaho law, anyone under the influence of alcohol, drugs or other intoxicating substances under “actual physical control” of a motor vehicle is guilty of driving under the influence. Idaho has a blood alcohol limit of 0.08%.  A first DUI offence is an offence punishable by up to 6 months in the county jail and a $1000 fine. A second drunk driving offense within 10 years is also a misdemeanor, but carries a penalty of up to 1 year in the county jail, a $1,000 fine, and a minimum sentence of 10 days in jail. A third or subsequent offense of impaired driving within 10 years is a felony and carries a sentence of up to 10 years in an Idaho state prison.  If a driver`s blood alcohol level is greater than 0.20, this is considered “excessive drink-driving”. While a first offense is still considered a misdemeanor (with heavier penalties), a second excessive driving while intoxicated within 10 years is a felony.
 Nevada has an implied consent law, an agreement that any motor vehicle driver accepts while driving on state roads that mandates breath or blood testing if an officer has a reasonable suspicion of impairment. Refusal is grounds for arrest, and law enforcement may use reasonable force to obtain blood samples.  Nevada itself has an impaired traffic violation triggered by chemical tests indicating a blood alcohol concentration of 0.08% or higher, or 0.02% or higher for drivers under 21 years of age. If a driver`s ability to operate a motor vehicle is impaired by the consumption of alcohol, the driver may be found unfit to drive, regardless of the blood alcohol level measured.  Ramirez A, Lacey JH, Tippetts AS. New Mexico`s Comprehensive Impaired Driving Program: A Case Study. Washington, DC: NHTSA, U.S. DOT. DOT SH 811,986; 2014. Unlike the United States, these countries do not see restricting access to alcohol as a useful role in reducing drunk driving.
Their experience shows that random breathalyzer tests, severe penalties, including prison sentences for a first offence (in the UK), combined with a national public service broadcaster are a more effective strategy.  The first state to pass an anti-drinking and driving law was New York in 1910. Other states soon followed. This was just a few years after the mass production of the automobile began – it didn`t take long for law enforcement to realize the dangers of mixing alcohol and driving. Clay Hall, director of program development for the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration`s Office of Alcohol Countermeasures, said such a study was nearly impossible due to a number of variables, such as different laws, penalties and enforcement.